Lower key stage 2  years 3 and 4
The principal focus of mathematics teaching in lower key stage 2 is to ensure that pupils become increasingly fluent with whole numbers and the 4 operations, including number facts and the concept of place value. This should ensure that pupils develop efficient written and mental methods and perform calculations accurately with increasingly large whole numbers.
At this stage, pupils should develop their ability to solve a range of problems, including with simple fractions and decimal place value. Teaching should also ensure that pupils draw with increasing accuracy and develop mathematical reasoning so they can analyse shapes and their properties, and confidently describe the relationships between them. It should ensure that they can use measuring instruments with accuracy and make connections between measure and number.
By the end of year 4, pupils should have memorised their multiplication tables up to and including the 12 multiplication table and show precision and fluency in their work.
Pupils should read and spell mathematical vocabulary correctly and confidently, using their growing wordreading knowledge and their knowledge of spelling.
Year 3 programme of study
Number  number and place value
Pupils should be taught to:
 count from 0 in multiples of 4, 8, 50 and 100; find 10 or 100 more or less than a given number
 recognise the place value of each digit in a 3digit number (100s, 10s, 1s)
 compare and order numbers up to 1,000
 identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations
 read and write numbers up to 1,000 in numerals and in words
 solve number problems and practical problems involving these ideas
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils now use multiples of 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 50 and 100.
They use larger numbers to at least 1,000, applying partitioning related to place value using varied and increasingly complex problems, building on work in year 2 (for example, 146 = 100 + 40 + 6, 146 = 130 +16).
Using a variety of representations, including those related to measure, pupils continue to count in 1s, 10s and 100s, so that they become fluent in the order and place value of numbers to 1,000.
Number  addition and subtraction
Pupils should be taught to:
 add and subtract numbers mentally, including:
 a threedigit number and 1s
 a threedigit number and 10s
 a threedigit number and 100s
 add and subtract numbers with up to 3 digits, using formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction
 estimate the answer to a calculation and use inverse operations to check answers
 solve problems, including missing number problems, using number facts, place value, and more complex addition and subtraction
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils practise solving varied addition and subtraction questions. For mental calculations with twodigit numbers, the answers could exceed 100.
Pupils use their understanding of place value and partitioning, and practise using columnar addition and subtraction with increasingly large numbers up to 3 digits to become fluent (see Mathematics appendix 1).
Number  multiplication and division
Pupils should be taught to:
 recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 3, 4 and 8 multiplication tables
 write and calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division using the multiplication tables that they know, including for twodigit numbers times onedigit numbers, using mental and progressing to formal written methods
 solve problems, including missing number problems, involving multiplication and division, including positive integer scaling problems and correspondence problems in which n objects are connected to m objects
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils continue to practise their mental recall of multiplication tables when they are calculating mathematical statements in order to improve fluency. Through doubling, they connect the 2, 4 and 8 multiplication tables.
Pupils develop efficient mental methods, for example, using commutativity and associativity (for example, 4 × 12 × 5 = 4 × 5 × 12 = 20 × 12 = 240) and multiplication and division facts (for example, using 3 × 2 = 6, 6 ÷ 3 = 2 and 2 = 6 ÷ 3) to derive related facts (30 × 2 = 60, 60 ÷ 3 = 20 and 20 = 60 ÷ 3).
Pupils develop reliable written methods for multiplication and division, starting with calculations of twodigit numbers by onedigit numbers and progressing to the formal written methods of short multiplication and division.
Pupils solve simple problems in contexts, deciding which of the 4 operations to use and why. These include measuring and scaling contexts, (for example 4 times as high, 8 times as long etc) and correspondence problems in which m objects are connected to n objects (for example, 3 hats and 4 coats, how many different outfits?; 12 sweets shared equally between 4 children; 4 cakes shared equally between 8 children).
Number  fractions
Pupils should be taught to:
 count up and down in tenths; recognise that tenths arise from dividing an object into 10 equal parts and in dividing onedigit numbers or quantities by 10
 recognise, find and write fractions of a discrete set of objects: unit fractions and nonunit fractions with small denominators
 recognise and use fractions as numbers: unit fractions and nonunit fractions with small denominators
 recognise and show, using diagrams, equivalent fractions with small denominators
 add and subtract fractions with the same denominator within one whole [for example, + = ]
 compare and order unit fractions, and fractions with the same denominators
 solve problems that involve all of the above
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils connect tenths to place value, decimal measures and to division by 10.
They begin to understand unit and nonunit fractions as numbers on the number line, and deduce relations between them, such as size and equivalence. They should go beyond the [0, 1] interval, including relating this to measure.
Pupils understand the relation between unit fractions as operators (fractions of), and division by integers.
They continue to recognise fractions in the context of parts of a whole, numbers, measurements, a shape, and unit fractions as a division of a quantity.
Pupils practise adding and subtracting fractions with the same denominator through a variety of increasingly complex problems to improve fluency.
Measurement
Pupils should be taught to:
 measure, compare, add and subtract: lengths (m/cm/mm); mass (kg/g); volume/capacity (l/ml)
 measure the perimeter of simple 2D shapes
 add and subtract amounts of money to give change, using both £ and p in practical contexts
 tell and write the time from an analogue clock, including using Roman numerals from I to XII, and 12hour and 24hour clocks
 estimate and read time with increasing accuracy to the nearest minute; record and compare time in terms of seconds, minutes and hours; use vocabulary such as o’clock, am/pm, morning, afternoon, noon and midnight
 know the number of seconds in a minute and the number of days in each month, year and leap year
 compare durations of events [for example, to calculate the time taken by particular events or tasks]
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils continue to measure using the appropriate tools and units, progressing to using a wider range of measures, including comparing and using mixed units (for example, 1 kg and 200g) and simple equivalents of mixed units (for example, 5m = 500cm).
The comparison of measures includes simple scaling by integers (for example, a given quantity or measure is twice as long or 5 times as high) and this connects to multiplication.
Pupils continue to become fluent in recognising the value of coins, by adding and subtracting amounts, including mixed units, and giving change using manageable amounts. They record £ and p separately. The decimal recording of money is introduced formally in year 4.
Pupils use both analogue and digital 12hour clocks and record their times. In this way they become fluent in and prepared for using digital 24hour clocks in year 4.
Geometry  properties of shapes
Pupils should be taught to:
 draw 2D shapes and make 3D shapes using modelling materials; recognise 3D shapes in different orientations and describe them
 recognise angles as a property of shape or a description of a turn
 identify right angles, recognise that 2 right angles make a halfturn, 3 make threequarters of a turn and 4 a complete turn; identify whether angles are greater than or less than a right angle
 identify horizontal and vertical lines and pairs of perpendicular and parallel lines
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils’ knowledge of the properties of shapes is extended at this stage to symmetrical and nonsymmetrical polygons and polyhedra. Pupils extend their use of the properties of shapes. They should be able to describe the properties of 2D and 3D shapes using accurate language, including lengths of lines and acute and obtuse for angles greater or lesser than a right angle.
Pupils connect decimals and rounding to drawing and measuring straight lines in centimetres, in a variety of contexts.
Statistics
Pupils should be taught to:
 interpret and present data using bar charts, pictograms and tables
 solve onestep and twostep questions [for example ‘How many more?’ and ‘How many fewer?’] using information presented in scaled bar charts and pictograms and tables
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils understand and use simple scales (for example, 2, 5, 10 units per cm) in pictograms and bar charts with increasing accuracy.
They continue to interpret data presented in many contexts.
Year 4 programme of study
Number  number and place value
Pupils should be taught to:
 count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1,000
 find 1,000 more or less than a given number
 count backwards through 0 to include negative numbers
 recognise the place value of each digit in a fourdigit number (1,000s, 100s, 10s, and 1s)
 order and compare numbers beyond 1,000
 identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations
 round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1,000
 solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above and with increasingly large positive numbers
 read Roman numerals to 100 (I to C) and know that over time, the numeral system changed to include the concept of 0 and place value
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Using a variety of representations, including measures, pupils become fluent in the order and place value of numbers beyond 1,000, including counting in 10s and 100s, and maintaining fluency in other multiples through varied and frequent practice.
They begin to extend their knowledge of the number system to include the decimal numbers and fractions that they have met so far.
They connect estimation and rounding numbers to the use of measuring instruments.
Roman numerals should be put in their historical context so pupils understand that there have been different ways to write whole numbers and that the important concepts of 0 and place value were introduced over a period of time.
Number  addition and subtraction
Pupils should be taught to:
 add and subtract numbers with up to 4 digits using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction where appropriate
 estimate and use inverse operations to check answers to a calculation
 solve addition and subtraction twostep problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils continue to practise both mental methods and columnar addition and subtraction with increasingly large numbers to aid fluency (see Mathematics appendix 1).
Number  multiplication and division
Pupils should be taught to:
 recall multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 × 12
 use place value, known and derived facts to multiply and divide mentally, including: multiplying by 0 and 1; dividing by 1; multiplying together 3 numbers
 recognise and use factor pairs and commutativity in mental calculations
 multiply twodigit and threedigit numbers by a onedigit number using formal written layout
 solve problems involving multiplying and adding, including using the distributive law to multiply twodigit numbers by 1 digit, integer scaling problems and harder correspondence problems such as n objects are connected to m objects
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils continue to practise recalling and using multiplication tables and related division facts to aid fluency.
Pupils practise mental methods and extend this to 3digit numbers to derive facts, (for example 600 ÷ 3 = 200 can be derived from 2 x 3 = 6).
Pupils practise to become fluent in the formal written method of short multiplication and short division with exact answers (see Mathematics appendix 1).
Pupils write statements about the equality of expressions (for example, use the distributive law 39 × 7 = 30 × 7 + 9 × 7 and associative law (2 × 3) × 4 = 2 × (3 × 4)). They combine their knowledge of number facts and rules of arithmetic to solve mental and written calculations for example, 2 x 6 x 5 = 10 x 6 = 60.
Pupils solve twostep problems in contexts, choosing the appropriate operation, working with increasingly harder numbers. This should include correspondence questions such as the numbers of choices of a meal on a menu, or 3 cakes shared equally between 10 children.
Number  fractions (including decimals)
Pupils should be taught to:
 recognise and show, using diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions
 count up and down in hundredths; recognise that hundredths arise when dividing an object by 100 and dividing tenths by 10
 solve problems involving increasingly harder fractions to calculate quantities, and fractions to divide quantities, including nonunit fractions where the answer is a whole number
 add and subtract fractions with the same denominator
 recognise and write decimal equivalents of any number of tenths or hundreds

recognise and write decimal equivalents to , ,
 find the effect of dividing a one or twodigit number by 10 and 100, identifying the value of the digits in the answer as ones, tenths and hundredths
 round decimals with 1 decimal place to the nearest whole number
 compare numbers with the same number of decimal places up to 2 decimal places
 solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to 2 decimal places
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils should connect hundredths to tenths and place value and decimal measure.
They extend the use of the number line to connect fractions, numbers and measures.
Pupils understand the relation between nonunit fractions and multiplication and division of quantities, with particular emphasis on tenths and hundredths.
Pupils make connections between fractions of a length, of a shape and as a representation of one whole or set of quantities. Pupils use factors and multiples to recognise equivalent fractions and simplify where appropriate (for example, = or = ).
Pupils continue to practise adding and subtracting fractions with the same denominator, to become fluent through a variety of increasingly complex problems beyond one whole. Pupils are taught throughout that decimals and fractions are different ways of expressing numbers and proportions.
Pupils’ understanding of the number system and decimal place value is extended at this stage to tenths and then hundredths. This includes relating the decimal notation to division of whole number by 10 and later 100.
They practise counting using simple fractions and decimals, both forwards and backwards.
Pupils learn decimal notation and the language associated with it, including in the context of measurements. They make comparisons and order decimal amounts and quantities that are expressed to the same number of decimal places. They should be able to represent numbers with 1 or 2 decimal places in several ways, such as on number lines.
Measurement
Pupils should be taught to:
 convert between different units of measure [for example, kilometre to metre; hour to minute]
 measure and calculate the perimeter of a rectilinear figure (including squares) in centimetres and metres
 find the area of rectilinear shapes by counting squares
 estimate, compare and calculate different measures, including money in pounds and pence
 read, write and convert time between analogue and digital 12 and 24hour clocks
 solve problems involving converting from hours to minutes, minutes to seconds, years to months, weeks to days
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils build on their understanding of place value and decimal notation to record metric measures, including money.
They use multiplication to convert from larger to smaller units.
Perimeter can be expressed algebraically as 2(a + b) where a and b are the dimensions in the same unit.
They relate area to arrays and multiplication.
Geometry  properties of shapes
Pupils should be taught to:
 compare and classify geometric shapes, including quadrilaterals and triangles, based on their properties and sizes
 identify acute and obtuse angles and compare and order angles up to 2 right angles by size
 identify lines of symmetry in 2D shapes presented in different orientations
 complete a simple symmetric figure with respect to a specific line of symmetry
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils continue to classify shapes using geometrical properties, extending to classifying different triangles (for example, isosceles, equilateral, scalene) and quadrilaterals (for example, parallelogram, rhombus, trapezium).
Pupils compare and order angles in preparation for using a protractor and compare lengths and angles to decide if a polygon is regular or irregular.
Pupils draw symmetric patterns using a variety of media to become familiar with different orientations of lines of symmetry; and recognise line symmetry in a variety of diagrams, including where the line of symmetry does not dissect the original shape.
Geometry  position and direction
Pupils should be taught to:
 describe positions on a 2D grid as coordinates in the first quadrant
 describe movements between positions as translations of a given unit to the left/right and up/down
 plot specified points and draw sides to complete a given polygon
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils draw a pair of axes in one quadrant, with equal scales and integer labels. They read, write and use pairs of coordinates, for example (2, 5), including using coordinateplotting ICT tools.
Statistics
Pupils should be taught to:
 interpret and present discrete and continuous data using appropriate graphical methods, including bar charts and time graphs
 solve comparison, sum and difference problems using information presented in bar charts, pictograms, tables and other graphs
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils understand and use a greater range of scales in their representations.
Pupils begin to relate the graphical representation of data to recording change over time.
Upper key stage 2  years 5 and 6
The principal focus of mathematics teaching in upper key stage 2 is to ensure that pupils extend their understanding of the number system and place value to include larger integers. This should develop the connections that pupils make between multiplication and division with fractions, decimals, percentages and ratio.
At this stage, pupils should develop their ability to solve a wider range of problems, including increasingly complex properties of numbers and arithmetic, and problems demanding efficient written and mental methods of calculation. With this foundation in arithmetic, pupils are introduced to the language of algebra as a means for solving a variety of problems. Teaching in geometry and measures should consolidate and extend knowledge developed in number. Teaching should also ensure that pupils classify shapes with increasingly complex geometric properties and that they learn the vocabulary they need to describe them.
By the end of year 6, pupils should be fluent in written methods for all 4 operations, including long multiplication and division, and in working with fractions, decimals and percentages.
Pupils should read, spell and pronounce mathematical vocabulary correctly.
Year 5 programme of study
Number  number and place value
Pupils should be taught to:
 read, write, order and compare numbers to at least 1,000,000 and determine the value of each digit
 count forwards or backwards in steps of powers of 10 for any given number up to 1,000,000
 interpret negative numbers in context, count forwards and backwards with positive and negative whole numbers, including through 0
 round any number up to 1,000,000 to the nearest 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000 and 100,000
 solve number problems and practical problems that involve all of the above
 read Roman numerals to 1,000 (M) and recognise years written in Roman numerals
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils identify the place value in large whole numbers.
They continue to use number in context, including measurement. Pupils extend and apply their understanding of the number system to the decimal numbers and fractions that they have met so far.
They should recognise and describe linear number sequences (for example, 3, 3 , 4, 4 …), including those involving fractions and decimals, and find the termtoterm rule in words (for example, add ).
Number  addition and subtraction
Pupils should be taught to:
 add and subtract whole numbers with more than 4 digits, including using formal written methods (columnar addition and subtraction)
 add and subtract numbers mentally with increasingly large numbers
 use rounding to check answers to calculations and determine, in the context of a problem, levels of accuracy
 solve addition and subtraction multistep problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils practise using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction with increasingly large numbers to aid fluency (see Mathematics appendix 1).
They practise mental calculations with increasingly large numbers to aid fluency (for example, 12,462 – 2,300 = 10,162).
Number  multiplication and division
Pupils should be taught to:
 identify multiples and factors, including finding all factor pairs of a number, and common factors of 2 numbers
 know and use the vocabulary of prime numbers, prime factors and composite (nonprime) numbers
 establish whether a number up to 100 is prime and recall prime numbers up to 19
 multiply numbers up to 4 digits by a one or twodigit number using a formal written method, including long multiplication for twodigit numbers
 multiply and divide numbers mentally, drawing upon known facts
 divide numbers up to 4 digits by a onedigit number using the formal written method of short division and interpret remainders appropriately for the context
 multiply and divide whole numbers and those involving decimals by 10, 100 and 1,000
 recognise and use square numbers and cube numbers, and the notation for squared (²) and cubed (³)
 solve problems involving multiplication and division, including using their knowledge of factors and multiples, squares and cubes
 solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division and a combination of these, including understanding the meaning of the equals sign
 solve problems involving multiplication and division, including scaling by simple fractions and problems involving simple rates
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils practise and extend their use of the formal written methods of short multiplication and short division (see Mathematics appendix 1). They apply all the multiplication tables and related division facts frequently, commit them to memory and use them confidently to make larger calculations.
They use and understand the terms factor, multiple and prime, square and cube numbers.
Pupils interpret noninteger answers to division by expressing results in different ways according to the context, including with remainders, as fractions, as decimals or by rounding (for example, 98 ÷ 4 = = 24 r 2 = 24 = 24.5 ≈ 25).
Pupils use multiplication and division as inverses to support the introduction of ratio in year 6, for example, by multiplying and dividing by powers of 10 in scale drawings or by multiplying and dividing by powers of a 1,000 in converting between units such as kilometres and metres.
Distributivity can be expressed as a(b + c) = ab + ac.
They understand the terms factor, multiple and prime, square and cube numbers and use them to construct equivalence statements (for example, 4 x 35 = 2 x 2 x 35; 3 x 270 = 3 x 3 x 9 x 10 = 9² x 10).
Pupils use and explain the equals sign to indicate equivalence, including in missing number problems (for example 13 + 24 = 12 + 25; 33 = 5 x ?).
Number  fractions (including decimals and percentages)
Pupils should be taught to:
 compare and order fractions whose denominators are all multiples of the same number
 identify, name and write equivalent fractions of a given fraction, represented visually, including tenths and hundredths
 recognise mixed numbers and improper fractions and convert from one form to the other and write mathematical statements > 1 as a mixed number [for example, + = = 1 ]
 add and subtract fractions with the same denominator, and denominators that are multiples of the same number
 multiply proper fractions and mixed numbers by whole numbers, supported by materials and diagrams
 read and write decimal numbers as fractions [for example, 0.71 = ]
 recognise and use thousandths and relate them to tenths, hundredths and decimal equivalents
 round decimals with 2 decimal places to the nearest whole number and to 1 decimal place
 read, write, order and compare numbers with up to 3 decimal places
 solve problems involving number up to 3 decimal places
 recognise the per cent symbol (%) and understand that per cent relates to ‘number of parts per 100’, and write percentages as a fraction with denominator 100, and as a decimal fraction
 solve problems which require knowing percentage and decimal equivalents of , , , , and those fractions with a denominator of a multiple of 10 or 25
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils should be taught throughout that percentages, decimals and fractions are different ways of expressing proportions.
They extend their knowledge of fractions to thousandths and connect to decimals and measures.
Pupils connect equivalent fractions > 1 that simplify to integers with division and other fractions > 1 to division with remainders, using the number line and other models, and hence move from these to improper and mixed fractions.
Pupils connect multiplication by a fraction to using fractions as operators (fractions of), and to division, building on work from previous years. This relates to scaling by simple fractions, including fractions > 1.
Pupils practise adding and subtracting fractions to become fluent through a variety of increasingly complex problems. They extend their understanding of adding and subtracting fractions to calculations that exceed 1 as a mixed number.
Pupils continue to practise counting forwards and backwards in simple fractions.
Pupils continue to develop their understanding of fractions as numbers, measures and operators by finding fractions of numbers and quantities. Pupils extend counting from year 4, using decimals and fractions including bridging 0, for example on a number line.
Pupils say, read and write decimal fractions and related tenths, hundredths and thousandths accurately and are confident in checking the reasonableness of their answers to problems.
They mentally add and subtract tenths, and onedigit whole numbers and tenths.
They practise adding and subtracting decimals, including a mix of whole numbers and decimals, decimals with different numbers of decimal places, and complements of 1 (for example, 0.83 + 0.17 = 1).
Pupils should go beyond the measurement and money models of decimals, for example, by solving puzzles involving decimals.
Pupils should make connections between percentages, fractions and decimals (for example, 100% represents a whole quantity and 1% is , 50% is , 25% is ) and relate this to finding ‘fractions of’.
Measurement
Pupils should be taught to:
 convert between different units of metric measure [for example, kilometre and metre; centimetre and metre; centimetre and millimetre; gram and kilogram; litre and millilitre]
 understand and use approximate equivalences between metric units and common imperial units such as inches, pounds and pints
 measure and calculate the perimeter of composite rectilinear shapes in centimetres and metres
 calculate and compare the area of rectangles (including squares), including using standard units, square centimetres (cm²) and square metres (m²), and estimate the area of irregular shapes
 estimate volume [for example, using 1 cm³ blocks to build cuboids (including cubes)] and capacity [for example, using water]
 solve problems involving converting between units of time
 use all four operations to solve problems involving measure [for example, length, mass, volume, money] using decimal notation, including scaling
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils use their knowledge of place value and multiplication and division to convert between standard units.
Pupils calculate the perimeter of rectangles and related composite shapes, including using the relations of perimeter or area to find unknown lengths. Missing measures questions such as these can be expressed algebraically, for example 4 + 2b = 20 for a rectangle of sides 2 cm and b cm and perimeter of 20cm.
Pupils calculate the area from scale drawings using given measurements.
Pupils use all 4 operations in problems involving time and money, including conversions (for example, days to weeks, expressing the answer as weeks and days).
Geometry  properties of shapes
Pupils should be taught to:
 identify 3D shapes, including cubes and other cuboids, from 2D representations
 know angles are measured in degrees: estimate and compare acute, obtuse and reflex angles
 draw given angles, and measure them in degrees (°)
 identify:
 angles at a point and 1 whole turn (total 360°)
 angles at a point on a straight line and half a turn (total 180°)
 other multiples of 90°
 use the properties of rectangles to deduce related facts and find missing lengths and angles
 distinguish between regular and irregular polygons based on reasoning about equal sides and angles
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils become accurate in drawing lines with a ruler to the nearest millimetre, and measuring with a protractor. They use conventional markings for parallel lines and right angles.
Pupils use the term diagonal and make conjectures about the angles formed between sides, and between diagonals and parallel sides, and other properties of quadrilaterals, for example using dynamic geometry ICT tools.
Pupils use angle sum facts and other properties to make deductions about missing angles and relate these to missing number problems.
Geometry  position and direction
Pupils should be taught to:
 identify, describe and represent the position of a shape following a reflection or translation, using the appropriate language, and know that the shape has not changed
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils recognise and use reflection and translation in a variety of diagrams, including continuing to use a 2D grid and coordinates in the first quadrant. Reflection should be in lines that are parallel to the axes.
Statistics
Pupils should be taught to:
 solve comparison, sum and difference problems using information presented in a line graph
 complete, read and interpret information in tables, including timetables
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils connect their work on coordinates and scales to their interpretation of time graphs.
They begin to decide which representations of data are most appropriate and why.
Year 6 programme of study
Number  number and place value
Pupils should be taught to:
 read, write, order and compare numbers up to 10,000,000 and determine the value of each digit
 round any whole number to a required degree of accuracy
 use negative numbers in context, and calculate intervals across 0
 solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils use the whole number system, including saying, reading and writing numbers accurately.
Number  addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
Pupils should be taught to:
 multiply multidigit numbers up to 4 digits by a twodigit whole number using the formal written method of long multiplication
 divide numbers up to 4 digits by a twodigit whole number using the formal written method of long division, and interpret remainders as whole number remainders, fractions, or by rounding, as appropriate for the context
 divide numbers up to 4 digits by a twodigit number using the formal written method of short division where appropriate, interpreting remainders according to the context
 perform mental calculations, including with mixed operations and large numbers
 identify common factors, common multiples and prime numbers
 use their knowledge of the order of operations to carry out calculations involving the 4 operations
 solve addition and subtraction multistep problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
 solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
 use estimation to check answers to calculations and determine, in the context of a problem, an appropriate degree of accuracy
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils practise addition, subtraction, multiplication and division for larger numbers, using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction, short and long multiplication, and short and long division (see Mathematics appendix 1).
They undertake mental calculations with increasingly large numbers and more complex calculations.
Pupils continue to use all the multiplication tables to calculate mathematical statements in order to maintain their fluency.
Pupils round answers to a specified degree of accuracy, for example, to the nearest 10, 20, 50, etc, but not to a specified number of significant figures.
Pupils explore the order of operations using brackets; for example, 2 + 1 x 3 = 5 and (2 + 1) x 3 = 9.
Common factors can be related to finding equivalent fractions.
Number  Fractions (including decimals and percentages)
Pupils should be taught to:
 use common factors to simplify fractions; use common multiples to express fractions in the same denomination
 compare and order fractions, including fractions >1
 add and subtract fractions with different denominators and mixed numbers, using the concept of equivalent fractions
 multiply simple pairs of proper fractions, writing the answer in its simplest form [for example, × = ]
 divide proper fractions by whole numbers [for example, ÷ 2 = ]
 associate a fraction with division and calculate decimal fraction equivalents [for example, 0.375] for a simple fraction [for example, ]
 identify the value of each digit in numbers given to 3 decimal places and multiply and divide numbers by 10, 100 and 1,000 giving answers up to 3 decimal places
 multiply onedigit numbers with up to 2 decimal places by whole numbers
 use written division methods in cases where the answer has up to 2 decimal places
 solve problems which require answers to be rounded to specified degrees of accuracy
 recall and use equivalences between simple fractions, decimals and percentages, including in different contexts
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils should practise, use and understand the addition and subtraction of fractions with different denominators by identifying equivalent fractions with the same denominator. They should start with fractions where the denominator of one fraction is a multiple of the other (for example, + = ] and progress to varied and increasingly complex problems.
Pupils should use a variety of images to support their understanding of multiplication with fractions. This follows earlier work about fractions as operators (fractions of), as numbers, and as equal parts of objects, for example as parts of a rectangle.
Pupils use their understanding of the relationship between unit fractions and division to work backwards by multiplying a quantity that represents a unit fraction to find the whole quantity (for example, if quarter of a length is 36cm, then the whole length is 36 × 4 = 144cm).
They practise calculations with simple fractions and decimal fraction equivalents to aid fluency, including listing equivalent fractions to identify fractions with common denominators.
Pupils can explore and make conjectures about converting a simple fraction to a decimal fraction (for example, 3 ÷ 8 = 0.375). For simple fractions with recurring decimal equivalents, pupils learn about rounding the decimal to three decimal places, or other appropriate approximations depending on the context. Pupils multiply and divide numbers with up to 2 decimal places by onedigit and twodigit whole numbers. Pupils multiply decimals by whole numbers, starting with the simplest cases, such as 0.4 × 2 = 0.8, and in practical contexts, such as measures and money.
Pupils are introduced to the division of decimal numbers by onedigit whole numbers, initially, in practical contexts involving measures and money. They recognise division calculations as the inverse of multiplication.
Pupils also develop their skills of rounding and estimating as a means of predicting and checking the order of magnitude of their answers to decimal calculations. This includes rounding answers to a specified degree of accuracy and checking the reasonableness of their answers.
Ratio and proportion
Pupils should be taught to:
 solve problems involving the relative sizes of 2 quantities where missing values can be found by using integer multiplication and division facts
 solve problems involving the calculation of percentages [for example, of measures and such as 15% of 360] and the use of percentages for comparison
 solve problems involving similar shapes where the scale factor is known or can be found
 solve problems involving unequal sharing and grouping using knowledge of fractions and multiples
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils recognise proportionality in contexts when the relations between quantities are in the same ratio (for example, similar shapes and recipes).
Pupils link percentages or 360° to calculating angles of pie charts.
Pupils should consolidate their understanding of ratio when comparing quantities, sizes and scale drawings by solving a variety of problems. They might use the notation a:b to record their work.
Pupils solve problems involving unequal quantities, for example, ’for every egg you need 3 spoonfuls of flour’, ‘ of the class are boys’. These problems are the foundation for later formal approaches to ratio and proportion.
Algebra
Pupils should be taught to:
 use simple formulae
 generate and describe linear number sequences
 express missing number problems algebraically
 find pairs of numbers that satisfy an equation with 2 unknowns
 enumerate possibilities of combinations of 2 variables
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils should be introduced to the use of symbols and letters to represent variables and unknowns in mathematical situations that they already understand, such as:
 missing numbers, lengths, coordinates and angles
 formulae in mathematics and science
 equivalent expressions (for example, a + b = b + a)
 generalisations of number patterns
 number puzzles (for example, what 2 numbers can add up to)
Measurement
Pupils should be taught to:
 solve problems involving the calculation and conversion of units of measure, using decimal notation up to 3 decimal places where appropriate
 use, read, write and convert between standard units, converting measurements of length, mass, volume and time from a smaller unit of measure to a larger unit, and vice versa, using decimal notation to up to 3 decimal places
 convert between miles and kilometres
 recognise that shapes with the same areas can have different perimeters and vice versa
 recognise when it is possible to use formulae for area and volume of shapes
 calculate the area of parallelograms and triangles
 calculate, estimate and compare volume of cubes and cuboids using standard units, including cubic centimetres (cm³) and cubic metres (m³), and extending to other units [for example, mm³ and km³]
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils connect conversion (for example, from kilometres to miles) to a graphical representation as preparation for understanding linear/proportional graphs.
They know approximate conversions and are able to tell if an answer is sensible.
Using the number line, pupils use, add and subtract positive and negative integers for measures such as temperature.
They relate the area of rectangles to parallelograms and triangles, for example, by dissection, and calculate their areas, understanding and using the formulae (in words or symbols) to do this.
Pupils could be introduced to compound units for speed, such as miles per hour, and apply their knowledge in science or other subjects as appropriate.
Geometry  properties of shapes
Pupils should be taught to:
 draw 2D shapes using given dimensions and angles
 recognise, describe and build simple 3D shapes, including making nets
 compare and classify geometric shapes based on their properties and sizes and find unknown angles in any triangles, quadrilaterals, and regular polygons
 illustrate and name parts of circles, including radius, diameter and circumference and know that the diameter is twice the radius
 recognise angles where they meet at a point, are on a straight line, or are vertically opposite, and find missing angles
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils draw shapes and nets accurately, using measuring tools and conventional markings and labels for lines and angles.
Pupils describe the properties of shapes and explain how unknown angles and lengths can be derived from known measurements.
These relationships might be expressed algebraically for example, d = 2 × r; a = 180 − (b + c).
Geometry  position and direction
Pupils should be taught to:
 describe positions on the full coordinate grid (all 4 quadrants)
 draw and translate simple shapes on the coordinate plane, and reflect them in the axes
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils draw and label a pair of axes in all 4 quadrants with equal scaling. This extends their knowledge of one quadrant to all 4 quadrants, including the use of negative numbers.
Pupils draw and label rectangles (including squares), parallelograms and rhombuses, specified by coordinates in the four quadrants, predicting missing coordinates using the properties of shapes. These might be expressed algebraically for example, translating vertex (a, b) to (a − 2, b + 3); (a, b) and (a + d, b + d) being opposite vertices of a square of side d.
Statistics
Pupils should be taught to:
 interpret and construct pie charts and line graphs and use these to solve problems
 calculate and interpret the mean as an average
Notes and guidance (nonstatutory)
Pupils connect their work on angles, fractions and percentages to the interpretation of pie charts.
Pupils both encounter and draw graphs relating 2 variables, arising from their own enquiry and in other subjects.
They should connect conversion from kilometres to miles in measurement to its graphical representation.
Pupils know when it is appropriate to find the mean of a data set.